The main features of MGSE are:
- The bottom panel
- The application menu
- The window list
- A task-centric desktop (i.e. you switch between windows, not applications)
- Visible system tray icons
The main features of MGSE are:
To create partitions larger than 2TB we need to use GPT labels. Standard fdisk doesn’t understand GPT labels so we need to use parted.
Here we are going to partition the disk /dev/sdb
root@localhost ~> parted /dev/sdb
This will bring up parted. Type help to view the commands in parted prompt.
check NUMBER do a simple check on the file system
cp [FROM-DEVICE] FROM-NUMBER TO-NUMBER copy file system to another partition
help [COMMAND] prints general help, or help on COMMAND
mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE create a new disklabel (partition table)
mkfs NUMBER FS-TYPE make a FS-TYPE file system on partititon NUMBER
mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END make a partition
mkpartfs PART-TYPE FS-TYPE START END make a partition with a file system
move NUMBER START END move partition NUMBER
name NUMBER NAME name partition NUMBER as NAME
print [free|NUMBER|all] display the partition table, a partition, or all devices
quit exit program
rescue START END rescue a lost partition near START and END
resize NUMBER START END resize partition NUMBER and its file system
rm NUMBER delete partition NUMBER
select DEVICE choose the device to edit
set NUMBER FLAG STATE change the FLAG on partition NUMBER
toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]] toggle the state of FLAG on partition NUMBER
unit UNIT set the default unit to UNIT
version displays the current version of GNU Parted and copyright information
root@localhost ~> parted /dev/sdb
GNU Parted 1.8.1
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type ‘help’ to view a list of commands.
To change the label to gpt we run the following command:
(parted) mklabel gpt
Next run the print command: This will list the disk geometry. Please note the size listed:
Model: Adaptec raid5-1 (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 10.7TB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Number Start End Size File system Name Flags
This will tell us where to start and end the partitions. To create one huge partition ( 8 Tb = 8388608 bytes) run the following commands:
(parted) mkpart primary 0 8388607.000
The command reads as make a primary partition, start at 0 and end at 8388607.000
Also, if you are making a partition for a device smaller than the limit from the notes below, you can use the following if the geometry doesn’t show like it does above. Just exit out of parted, and run this from a shell:
root@localhost ~> parted -s — /dev/sdb mkpart primary ext3 0 -1
This will take the whole disk for creating the partition.
The parition has been created and now you can quit parted:
Now all that has to be done is to format the partition:(the -m swith tells mkfs to only reserve 1% of the blocks for the super block)
root@localhost ~> mkfs.ext3 -m1 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.39 (29-May-2006)
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
1024000000 inodes, 2047999751 blocks
20479997 blocks (1.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
62500 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16384 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968,
102400000, 214990848, 512000000, 550731776, 644972544, 1934917632
Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done
This filesystem will be automatically checked every 38 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.
Mount the disk
root@localhost ~> mount /dev/sdb1 /disk1
root@localhost ~> df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3 240G 2.3G 225G 2% /
/dev/sda1 996M 45M 900M 5% /boot
tmpfs 2.0G 0 2.0G 0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1 7.6T 177M 7.5T 1% /disk1
Now edit /etc/fstab to mount the partiton automatically on boot.
root@localhost ~>vi /etc/fstab
Add the following line in /etc/fstab
/dev/sdb1 /disk1 ext3 defaults 0 0
Here are some tricks to boost your productivity when working withSSH.
OpenSSH has a great feature “key-based authorization” which uses RSA/DSA key pair to do authorization instead of password. With the help of it, login can be done automatically.
Here are the steps:
~/.ssh. If you find a fine with name
id_rsa.pub, you are done since the key pair is ready to use. Otherwise, create it simply by typing
ssh-keygenand following the instructions. Keep in mind that there are two kinds of key pairs, RSA or DSA. I always use RSA. You can choose one on your own. If you choose RSA with other options as default, you will get
~/.ssh. The former file is the private key and latter one is the public key.
~/.sshis private. I want to emphasize that here that the private key, i.e.
id_rsa, is the equivalent with your password since people who can access this file can login the remote machine easily as they got your password! So make it private first.
chmod 700 ~/.ssh
scp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub email@example.com:~/my_key.pub
~/.ssh/authorized_keyson the remote machine.
cat my_key.pub >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
on your local machine. If it works, remove the public key on the remote machine.
cat ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub | ssh -l user remote.machine.com ‘cat >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys’
Even auto login is set up, in some cases you have to wait for several seconds before the shell prompt bombs out. Still frustrating, right? In some worse cases, you have wait more than 10 seconds or even longer! Why? Each time you connect a remote machine, sshd would like to use your IP address to apply reverse DNS lookup to determine your hostname. If the DNS server goes slow, it may take seconds to return the results. The longer the lookup takes, the longer you have to wait.
Two tricks can be applied to solve this problem:
/etc/hostson the remote machine and add the IP address of your local machine to it with an appropriate hostname. So if you login the system, your IP address is resolved locally, which is definitely faster.
/etc/ssh/sshd_configand add one line:
Restart the sshd server then. If everything goes well, you will see the save of time.
Both tricks require root privilege. If do not have root access, ask your administrator to help you.
ssh -v or
ssh -vvv to output debug information and diagnose the problem.
Ssh works by the exchange and verification of information, using public and private keys, to identify hosts and users. It then provides encryption of subsequent communication, also by the use of public/private key cryptography.
SSH is designed to provide a secure method of authentication and data transport. This is accomplished via three main stages during the connection setup: SSH-TRANS, SSH-AUTH, and SSH-CONN.
As a user, you generate an “identity” on the client system by running the ssh-keygen program. This program creates a subdirectory $HOME/.ssh and inserts in it two files named identity and identity.pub which contain your private and public keys for your account on the client system. This latter file can then be appended to a file $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys that should reside on any/all servers where you will make ssh connections.
As a system administrator, you generate a public and private key pair for the system itself. By use of this information contained within the system itself, the possibility of someone spoofing the system’s identity by faking IP addresses or munging up DNS records that associate IP addresses and domain names is removed. You would have to break into the system and steal its private key in order to sucessfully pretend to be that system. This is a big improvement in security.
Once you generate your public/private key on your local system you can place your public key in the authorized_keys of the server so you can bypass the login procedure and directly login into the server without the password.
When you ssh to a machine by the following command :
ssh -l admin -p 78 svrxx.domain.com
The first step performed is authentication of the server to the client and client to the server i.e first the server checks whether its publci key is contained in the file $HOME/.ssh/known_hosts this procedure is known as host validation if the key is present in the known_hosts file it will proceed with the subsequent authentication.
Else if it is not matching or not present will display the following message :
The authenticity of host ’svrxx.domain.com (188.8.131.52)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is bd:e7:14:30:13:ba:74:77:47:b3:2a:b3:a1:07:2e:7a.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)?
Once you say yes then the public key of the server will be placed in the known_hosts file and you will not see this message again.
And once the host validation is complete the subsequent communcication will be encrypted using the private key that was generated from ssh-keygen command.
In Ubuntu 11.04, Unity would become the default desktop interface. Ubuntu 11.04 will replace its GNOME interface with Unity, a totally new interface which you can experience now with Ubuntu 10.10 Netbook Edition.
“Orlando, Fla.–Mark Shuttleworth, founder of Ubuntu and the company behind it, Canonical, surprised the hundreds of Ubuntu programmers at the Ubuntu Developers Summit when he announced that in the next release of the popular Linux operating system, Ubuntu 11.04, Unity would become the default desktop interface”.
Unity is a new desktop environment designed for netbooks and touch-screen devices. It includes a new panel as well as a new vertical launcher.
Ubuntu Light is a version of Ubuntu designed to dual-boot with another operating system, and focused on getting on the web fast. Canonical is offering this to computer manufacturers only, because it’s intended to be customized for specific computers in order to boot fast.
What is Unity?
Gnome comes with panels at the top and bottom of the display, but Unity comes with a top panel and a panel on the left side that can be utilized to launch apps as well as access already running apps.
“Unity and it’s range of technologies brings simplicity, power, and integration to both users and application developers. Unity puts design, integration, and Free Software at the heart of delivering a powerful and attractive experience”.
The experience will be different, depending upon your hardware.
Let’s see how this is installed and used:
If you are using Ubuntu 10.10 then installation instructions look like this:
1. Open up a terminal window.
2. Issue the command sudo add-apt-repository ppa:canonical-dx-team/une.
3. Issue the command sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install unity.
4. Close the terminal window.
If you are using 10.04, your instructions will look like this:
1. Open the Ubuntu Software Center.
2. Search for “netbook” (no quotes).
3. Mark ubuntu-netbook for installation.
4. Click Apply to install.
5. Accept any dependencies necessary.
Once the installation is completed you will then need to log out and choose the Unity session (or Ubuntu Netbook Edition – depending upon your release number) at the GDM login screen.
At first glance, you will feel like a normal netbook edition GNOME panel at the top of the screen. But, with a Google search box, it replaces the window list. There’ s also a panel on the left with colourful stack of icons.
The Unity application launcher is a dock. Selecting an icon in the launcher causes it to glow while the application loads. Dragging up and down scrolls the list of applications, and dragging an icon out allows it to be repositioned.
There are some default applications which always appear. Any application that is running will also appear, along with a small indicator that it is running on the left of the icon. The currently focused application also get a indicator on the right side.
Selecting an icon in the launcher causes it to glow while the application loads. Dragging up and down scrolls the list of applications, and dragging an icon out allows it to be repositioned. Right clicking on an icon initiates a scale effect which lets you select from all the windows for that application. There’s no support for minimizing windows.
It’s not easy to access applications which are not in the launcher because there’s no main menu. One item in the launcher is a folder which will show all the installed applications.
The window manager
Unity uses the Mutter window manager from GNOME 3. It’s a compositing window manager and supports some basic animations. At this time the integration between window title bars and the panel has not been implemented. The panel and launcher are run by Mutter, so it won’t be possible to use another window manager like Compiz with Unity. [update] A Compiz developer has Compiz working inside Unity, so this may not be true after all.
Clicking the Ubuntu logo scales all the windows and lets you select one to switch to it. The search box goes to Google for now, but later it should be used to search your computer. Everything else on the panel is an indicator, which the current exception of the network manager applet. Despite it’s appearance, the panel is not based on GNOME panel, but is drawn by Mutter.
I’m pretty excited about Unity. While the current version is not complete, it does seem to be in a usable state on my netbook so I’ll continue testing it there.
Though it is under many criticism from the ubuntu users. Hopefully with Ubuntu 11.04, some things will be tweaked to make it look a whole lot better.
The combined company, which will operate under the SoftLayer brand, will serve about 24,000 customers in 110 countries, operating 13 facilities in US and Europe that support about 76,000 servers, according to a GI news release. The company will provide dedicated and managed hosting, cloud-based services and colocation.
The brandname planet will get disappeared soon.
You can protect your PC by just following the simple steps below .
* Connect your Pen Drive or USB drive to your computer .
* Now a dialogue window will popup asking you to choose among the options as shown in the figure.
Don’t choose any of them , Just simply click Cancel.
* Now go to Start–> Run and type cmd to open the Command Prompt window .
* Now go to My Computer and Check the Drive letter of your USB drive or Pen Drive . ( E.g. If it is written Kingston (I:) , then I: will be the drive letter .)
* In the Command Window ( cmd ) , type the drive letter: and Hit Enter.
* Now type dir/w/o/a/p and Hit Enter
* You will get a list of files . In the list , search if anyone of the following do exist
RVHost.exe or any other files with .exe Extension
* If you find any one of the files above , Run the command attrib -h -r -s -a *.* and Hit Enter.
* Now Delete each File using the following Command del filename ( E.g del autorun.inf ) .
* That’s it . Now just scan your USB drive with the anti virus you have to ensure that you made your Pen Drive free of Virus.